Enhance column efficiency with high alumina ball packing

Your aim to increase the output of your products as well as maintain a tight leash on production costs can surely be achieved when you enhance column efficiency with high alumina ball packing. These alumina balls offer a sturdy packing option for your tower or column and can truly work out to be a very cost effective packing in the long run.

Alumina balls contain aluminium oxide that are manufactured in a high temperature firing kiln and thus have excellent heat resistance properties. If you need to run a distilling, absorption, stripping, heating, or regeneration tower or column then these balls can work as excellent packing within your tower for ideal liquid gas distribution. These balls also offer high resistance to strong alkalis, acids, and most organic solvents. These inert balls are also resistant to high pressures and have extremely low absorption levels. All these factors make them ideal as column packing that can also protect catalysts with low strength.

Alumina balls are used in natural gas, fertilizer, petrochemical, chemical, and even in environmental protection industries and each high alumina ball used in your column can contribute towards a higher yield of your desired product. These balls can be purchased in bags or drums and stacked within your column without any fear of breakage or deformation due to their dense structure. In fact, these balls are so strong that their variants are also used for grinding and milling in various industries too. While you can also use raschig rings, pall rings, berl saddles, intalox saddles, etc for your packing needs, these alumina balls can take care of your high pressure and high temperature needs in a very efficient and cost effective way. Other types of packing materials do have limitations when it comes to stacking them in deep beds or in large numbers.

If you require alumina balls for your column or tower then you can seek out several suppliers by simply visiting the internet. There are many manufacturers as well as dealers that can supply high alumina balls of various sizes to suit your specific cooling, stripping, distilling, or absorption requirement among others. You can compare technical features as well as prices and shipping costs of various suppliers before making an informed decision. The balls can then be shipped directly to your chosen address. This move will eliminate physically visiting suppliers that might be located in another town, city, or country. The smooth and tough exterior of each ball will truly ensure that your chosen process provides a higher yield without raising your energy costs.

If you have tried out various types of packing such as saddles or rings made out of different types of plastics or metals or ceramics then it is time to try out high alumina balls for superior liquid and gas distribution as well as protection of activated catalysts. You can choose from standard sizes or even order for specific sizes to suit your requirements. These high density balls truly make for excellent column internals that operate in a safe and efficient manner.

If your tower or column requires higher quantities of rugged packing materials then alumina balls that are created in high fired kilns and possess high density characteristics can truly fit the bill. You can certainly enhance column efficiency with high alumina ball packing that offers a cost effective solution to your specific needs.

Pack your column packing troubles away with intalox packing

If your heating, distilling, absorption, regeneration, or other type of tower or column does not perform to perfection in rewarding you with higher and purer yields then you can truly pack your column packing troubles away with intalox packing. This innovative column packing can certainly boost your liquid vapor distribution process and ensure that only the right chemicals exit out into the designated vessels.

The brand name Intalox is registered to Kosh-Glitsch LP located in USA and several other countries worldwide. The company offers a host of equipment for towers and columns including trays, random and structured packing, column internals, and several other innovative products. The company offers various types of packing under their intalox range such as their intalox ultra packing that is a metal packing in a unique twisted shape that offers the lowest pressure drop against the highest stripping, absorption, and distilling efficiency. This random packing also offers higher strength to weight ratio.

Another innovative intalox packing is the IMTP high performance packing that is made in stainless steel and again offers excellent strength to weight ratio, thus making it suitable for packing in beds even if they are 50 feet deep. This packing also ensures low pressure drops that will ensure high savings in energy. Another ingenious product is the intalox hy-pak metal packing that is produced in a cylindrical shape and offers excellent services during scrubbing, absorption and stripping. Various ribs inside each packing provides high mechanical strength and this packing too results in low pressure drops. Another product that is similar in shape is the flexiring metal packing that can easily replace pall rings in your column or tower in a very cost effective manner. This packing has low sensitivity to vapor and liquid distribution, which in turn makes it ideal for use with traditional liquid distributors.

Since each intalox packing made by Kosh-Glitsch has truly proved its mettle during the years, several other manufacturers too have been offering various forms of packing such as saddles, rings, etc under the intalox name. They also offer such packing in various materials such as different types of plastics, metals, and ceramics. However, you will need to separate the original user of this trademark from look-alikes so that you can end up with a packing that has been made by Kosh-Glitsch. You can surely use the internet to educate yourself on the wide range of products made by this innovative company and then choose a packing that is suitable for your specific needs. Whether you belong to the chemical, petrochemical, water purification, or natural gas industry, among others, you will surely find an intalox product that can easily improve the efficiency of your tower or column in a truly cost effective manner.

If your manufacturing process requires you to run a distillation, absorption, stripping, heating, or regeneration tower or column then your certainly need column packing that can boost your yield in a completely safe and energy efficient manner. You can surely pack your column packing troubles away with intalox packing provided you make sure that you purchase your packing from Kosh-Glitsch that holds all the required trademarks for each innovative packing.

Browse through the list of melaleuca ingredients before using its products

The wonderful powers of tea tree oil extracted from the melaleuca alternifolia plant are quite well known today, but you should remember to browse through the list of melaleuca ingredients before using its products. Several products are now available that use this natural antimicrobial oil and reading the list of ingredients before buying a product will help you to make an informed decision.

Melaluca oil or tea tree oil as it is also known has been used since more than a century by native Australians as a way to treat several skin infections as well as to treat superficial wounds. Its healing properties soon spread to other countries around the globe and the health and beauty industry too realized that this oil could be used to fend off several infections while also preventing new infections from attacking the body. The result was an infusion of tea trea oil in various products such as shampoos, soaps, body and hand washes, skin creams, ointments, and even in deodorants. The medical industry too started to realize the potential of melaleuca alternifolia oil and included it in various medicines as well as medical ointments.

However, before you rush out to buy the first product that mentions tea tree, melaleuca, or alternifolia in its ingredient list, it is important to pay heed to these tips. Since tea tree oil is a natural ingredient that is offered in various products, it is vital to learn about other ingredients within the desired product too. If the rest of the melaleuca ingredients in a particular product are made up only of chemicals that could harm your body, then you will not be able to enjoy the positive aspects of this wonderful oil. Instead, your body might simply react adversely to the product and you might even end up blaming tea trea oil for your woes.

It is thus important that the ingredient list of any product that contains melaleuca oil also contain helpful natural ingredients instead of artificial ones. This will ensure that the soap that you buy really does work to reduce skin blemishes and helps heal minor cuts and bruises quickly. This will also ensure that your skin does not get inflamed due to other harsh chemicals in the soap. A few unscrupulous dealers and manufacturers also mislead consumers by claiming to use melaleuca ingredients, while actually using inferior ingredients to boost their sales. It is thus very important to buy products using tea tree oil from a trusted source as well as read the ingredient list of each new product that you plan to try so that the product actually ends up benefitting your body. You should also do a test trial on a small patch of your skin to check for negative reaction by your skin and should discontinue use of the product in case of any discomfort.

The wonderful features of tea trea oil including its broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties are now known to most people around the globe. You might have a tough time in choosing the right product that contains this healing oil for yourself and your loved ones. However, instead of ending up with a product that does not work on your body or is not suitable for your body, you should certainly browse through the list of melaleuca ingredients before using its products to effectively beat back a wide range of infectious diseases.

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Enjoy multiple benefits by using products infused with melaleuca oil

The oil derived from the melaleuca alternifolia plant has treated people in Australia since centuries and with this oil now available in most corners of the globe, you too can enjoy multiple benefits by using products infused with melaleuca oil. This natural wonder has been providing relief for people since many decades and you too can now use this oil to protect yourself and your loved ones.

You might be more familiar with tree tea oil as this amazing oil is also known. However, you might not be familiar with the wide-reaching properties of this broad-spectrum antimicrobial oil that can fight back a wide range of infections that could attack your body. Manufacturers of health products all over the globe have realized the potential of tea tree oil that is derived from the melaluca plant and have started infusing this oil in bath soaps, body washes, shampoos, conditioners, face creams, ointments, and in many other medical and health products too.

The melaleuca oil is created by crushing and distilling the leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia plant. This oil is quite potent and is thus diluted with water and other ingredients to provide instant relief from skin and scalp infections, dandruff, minor cuts and bruises, athlete’s foot, and many more harmful infections as well as several other serious diseases. The best part is that this prevention and cure is possible through a natural product that is devoid of any harmful side effects provided you conduct a test on your skin or scalp before using it.

If you own a home distilling kit that has been already used to extract natural perfumes from lavender or mint leaves, then you can use the same kit to prepare your own melaleuca oil right at home. You will first need to locate melaleuca leaves that will need to be crushed and mixed with water before you pour the mixture in the distilling kit. The distillation process will reward you with pure homemade tea tree oil that should however be used only after diluting it to the required specifications. You can use the internet to browse on topics on how to use this wonderful oil to rid yourself and your loved ones of unwanted infections as well as protect your body against future attacks from various diseases.

However, if you are not familiar with home distilling then you can easily shop online to order various products that contain this amazing oil. However, you should also take a quick look at all related ingredients used in any product that you buy if you want to enjoy the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the melaleuca alternifolia oil without worrying about side effects caused by other ingredients in the soap, shampoo, or conditioner, etc. If used correctly, the right tea tree oil-infused product will help you to get rid of any infection in a very short time in a completely natural manner, while simultaneously helping you to avoid products with strong chemicals that might cause undesirable side effects.

If you are worried about using products that are made up completely of artificial ingredients then you should certainly look towards natural products made using tea trea oil. This multi-faceted oil can truly prevent and cure a wide range of microbial infections without harming helpful bacteria in the body. You can certainly enjoy multiple benefits by using products infused with melaleuca oil while encouraging your loved ones to do the same.

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Exploit the benefits of the melaluca plant by using products with tea trea oil

The melaleuca alternifolia plant truly offers amazing oil that can be used to ward off several infectious diseases that could attack your skin, scalp, teeth, and bones, and you can surely exploit the benefits of the melaluca plant by using products with tea trea oil. This incredible oil was discovered by Australian aborigines many years ago, and is now used in several skin-care and other health products that could provide you with protection against several unwanted infections.

Tea tree oil as it is commonly known was Australia’s secret for a very long time until enterprising people discovered its medicinal properties and started exporting this oil outside the country while also incorporating it in many products. You can thus find this oil from the melaleuca plant in products such as face creams, burn and scratch ointments, face washes, soaps, shampoos, hair conditioners, and many more products that you might already use on a daily basis. However, unlike products made with artificial ingredients, the products made using tea trea oil can help fight fungal and bacterial infections while ensuring that your body’s own helpful bacteria is not harmed in any manner.

Products that contain melaluca oil can also help in minor cuts, burns, and scratches, while also helping to get rid of vaginal yeast infections, and even warts. However, this oil needs to be used in diluted form and you should also take care to conduct a patch test on your skin if you plan to use a soap, shampoo, cream, or ointment containing this wonderful oil. If you notice any redness or itching, then you should stop use of the product and contact a dermatologist to find the right strength for your sensitive skin. If you are not adversely sensitive to the product then you should surely notice an improvement in your condition within a very short time. By opting for products that use this amazing oil, you will also be able to avoid alternate products that might only contain strong and harmful chemicals that could also be laden with undesired side effects.

If you want to add a few drops of melaluca oil to your bath to disinfect your skin in a pleasant manner then you can also make this incredible oil right in your own home. All you require is a home distilling kit that can also be used to extract essential oils from other plants such as eucalyptus, basil, lavender, etc. The process for extracting tea tree oil will remain the same since you will simply need to crush and boil the leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia plant before boiling the mixture. Your distilled tea trea oil can safely be used for your bath provided you do test your skin against any allergies and only put the desired drops in your bath. In fact, your loved ones can also sport clear skin, dandruff-free scalps, and healthy bodies when they use this miracle oil.

If you love to use natural products that do not contain harmful chemicals and are devoid of dangerous side effects then you should sincerely explore the multiple features of tea tree oil. This oil has proven its efficiency in keeping away fungal and bacterial infections since centuries and you too can certainly exploit the benefits of the melaluca plant by using products with tea trea oil.

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Sanitize your body with teetree oil made in your own home

If you want yourself and your loved ones to be protected from various types of infectious diseases then you can surely sanitize your body with teetree oil made in your own home. All you need is a home distilling kit that is used for extracting essential oils and you can produce this amazingly versatile oil right at home.

Tea Tree oil as it is also known was discovered by native Australian aborigines more than a century ago when they realized that the crushed leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia plant quickly healed skin wounds and boils very quickly and efficiently. Over the years, many more antifungal and antiseptic properties of this amazing oil were discovered even as reviews of this wonderful oil started spreading all around the globe. While there are several products such as soaps, shampoos, conditioners, face and body washes, creams, lotions, and even mouthwashes that contain this amazing oil, you can simply produce this oil right at home, if you have a home distiller. You can blend this oil with various home products or even dilute it with water to treat a wide range of skin problems.

If you have already been distilling mint or basil leaves in your home distilling kit then you just need to locate leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia so that you can repeat the same process to distill teetree oil from those leaves. You will need to crush the melaluca leaves, mix them with water and boil the mixture in your home distiller. The wonderful tea tree oil will soon start to drip into your collection vessel and you will now be able to use it to treat a wide range of undesired infections. These include thrush, vaginitis, dandruff, acne, athlete’s foot, minor cuts and bruises, corns, and various other types of bacterial infections. You will however, need to mix this oil in the right proportion with other products or in water to achieve the desired effects.

For example, you can add around 10 drops of your newly created teetree oil to any shampoo before massaging it on your scalp. A few applications will help you to say goodbye to lice, dandruff, and an itchy scalp. Similarly, adding a few drops of this oil to your bathtub will not only protect your skin from infections while eliminating any harmful bacteria present on your body, but will also sanitize your bathtub at the same time. The same goes for your home swimming pool, Jacuzzi, or spa. Tea tree oil mixed with any moisturizing lotion will also go a long way in keeping your skin soft, supple, and free of any dangerous skin infections. You can also use this versatile oil as a mouthwash by blending in a few drops in water and then gargling with it, although you should not drink that water. Even though several products have now appeared on store shelves with tea trea oil, you can surely save a lot of money when you distill this natural broad-spectrum antimicrobial oil right at home while also infusing it in your existing products at the same time.

If you are in search of a natural wonder that can help you and your family from unwanted and contagious skin infections then this Australian wonder can truly help you in a very economical manner. You can now sanitize your body with teetree oil made in your own home and use this wonderful oil to protect your family without the fear of harmful side effects.

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Defend your loved ones from infection with tee tre oil

Your body and that of your loved ones is constantly under attack from various types of bacteria and other viruses, but you can truly defend your loved ones from infection with tee tre oil. This multi-faceted oil can be used to treat and prevent a host of contagious diseases that would otherwise require the use of harsh chemicals or even steroids to control them.

The Australian aborigines were the first to discover the antibacterial and antifungal properties of teetree oil or tea tree oil as it is also called all over the globe. They used the crushed leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia plant over skin boils, cuts, wounds, and scratches, and found that this oil provided excellent results in not only healing but also in preventing various other infections from attacking their bodies. Over time, the melaluca oil made its way over to many other countries around the world and you too might have noticed several beauty shops offering a wide range of beauty products that feature this versatile oil.

Since tee tre oil provides unbelievable results when used to treat various skin infections, you would have now noticed the presence of this amazing oil in soaps, creams, lotions, ointments, shampoos, hand washes, and even in mouthwashes. The main aspect of teetree oil is its ability to fight off a wide range of microbial attacks without harming the body’s own healthy cells. This makes it an ideal natural fighter to help treat dandruff, acne, thrush, yeast infections, lice, athlete’s foot, and even gingivitis, among many other infections. This natural oil replaces various strong chemicals and even steroids that would otherwise be required to treat such infections. The best part is that tea tree oil is suitable for young children and small babies too, provided you dilute the product to the desired levels.

Since there are many health and beauty stores as well as online stores that offer various brands of products that promise to heal and prevent various skin infections through products laced with tee tre oil, it would be wise to study each product in detail before purchasing it. You should read all other ingredients present in any product that you propose to buy to check if it is indeed tea tree oil, which will work on your body. The product should not contain unwanted strong chemicals or steroids that can cause undesired side effects while canceling out the positive attributes of this wonderful oil. On the other hand, you should not confuse this oil with other types of oils. You should also buy any product that contains this oil from a reliable source to end up with a genuine product that can truly protect yourself and your loved ones from various bacterial infections without any harmful side effects.

Instead of buying artificially made beauty and health products that promise instant freedom from several types of skin infections, often at a great price in terms of money and undesired side effects, you should simply explore the wonderful world of teetree oil. This remarkable and versatile oil can help you to get rid of several infections without harming healthy cells of your body. If you want a natural cure for various afflictions troubling your health or that of your loved ones then you should certainly defend your loved ones and yourself with amazing tee tre oil.

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THE HYDROMETER Calculate Chaptalisation

Calculate Chaptalisation

Checking wine for dryness; chaptalising wine to the right body;
ensuring that wine isnot too dry, which gives poor flavour, incorrect
balance, shorter shelf life

Basic facts: Wine comprises extract, alcohol, water
and residual sugars.

Alcohol is formed from the fermentation of sugar.

These components must be in balance. 2.7 grammes of sugar gives a reading
of 1 degree on the hydrometer in 1 litre of wine.

Measure the finished wine when it has cleared. With storage it will become
about 2 degrees drier. A wine that has fermented too far is too dry and sugar
must be added (chaptalisation), otherwise the balance, flavour and body will suffer.
Flavour in a wine that is too dry can be good but is improved enormously by chaptalisation.
The body, flavour, and aroma are enhanced.

When wine ferments out, becoming too dry, it has to be chaptalised.

Chaptalisation is calculated thus: the hydrometer reading of the wine to
be sweetened minus 1000 x 2.7 grammes of sugar x litres wine = for example
(a strong wine) 20 hydrometer degrees x 2,7 grammes sugar x 20 litres of
wine = 1080 grammes of sugar. Grape juice makes chaptalising easy,
particularly with light wines (3 millilitres/litre gives 1 hydrometer degree).

2 decilitres of grape juice does not affect the dryness but greatly improves
the flavour and keeping quality of the wine.

1 litre water = 1 kg (1 000 grammes)

1 litre alcohol = 800 grammes

10% alcohol/water – mixture

100 ml alcohol x weight 0.8 = 80 grammes

900 ml water = 900 grammes

980 grammes

980 grammes is 20 grammes less than 1 kg = minus 20 hydrometer (with Oechslescale) degrees

The Hydrometer Introduction


The hydrometer is a floating weight used to
determine how many grammes one litre of must
(unfermented grape juice) or wine weighs.
There are two different sets of scales:

1.  Specific Gravity(S G) – most used by US/UK
2.  Oechsle Scale– named after Ferdinand Oechsle of Pforzheim, Germany

The hydrometer is winemaking’s most important instrument.
To illustrate, in Germany, the entire legislation regarding winemaking is based on the hydrometer! And German winemaking legislation is
the most stringent in the world.

Winemaking without a hydrometer is like driving a car without a steering wheel – there’s a strong chance of not getting to the destination. It is the only instrument necessary for the winemaker.

Professional winemaking would be impossible without it.

While you may wish to browse around the categories you will want to start at the Contents Page and follow the list in sequence, in order to cover the process in the proper sequence.